Impact on the Land

Unit Framework- Social Studies 4

Outcomes achieved:

DR4.1 Correlate the impact of the land on the lifestyles and settlement patterns of the people of Saskatchewan.

DR4.2 Explain the relationship of First Nations and Métis peoples with the land.

RW4.2 Investigate the importance of agriculture to the economy and culture of Saskatchewan.

RW4.3 Assess the impact of Saskatchewan resources and technological innovations on the provincial, national, and global communities.

Indicators Achieved:

DR4.1:a. Locate Saskatchewan on a map of Canada, North America, and the world.b. Locate the geographic centre of Saskatchewan on a map.c. Make inferences about why people in Saskatchewan settled particular locations, including settlement patterns before and after coming together of First Nations and European peoples using a variety of maps (e.g., near waterways, sources of water, rail lines, natural resources, low population density in rural areas).d. Identify the characteristics of the unique geographic regions in Saskatchewan. e. Identify the impact of geography on the architecture of Saskatchewan, including how styles, materials, and cultural traditions have been affected by interaction with the land and other people in the province.

DR4.2: a. Investigate the traditional worldviews of First Nations peoples prior to European contact regarding land as an animate object and sustaining life force.b. Research traditional lifestyles of First Nations communities and peoples prior to European contact (e.g., hunting, gathering, movement of people to follow food sources).c. Explore how the traditional worldviews and teachings of First Nations’ Elders regarding land influence the lifestyle of First Nations people today. d. Research the history of the Métis people and their relationship with the land. f. Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Métis people. e. Compare the traditional views of land and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Saskatchewan with those of the railway developers.f. Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Métis people.g. Investigate the process by which decisions were made about the location of reserve lands in Saskatchewan.h. Research the Métis struggle for land, and the displacement of Métis people in the late 19th century.

RW 4.2 g. Analyze the significance of Saskatchewan agricultural commodity exports to the province.

RW4.3  a. Represent on a map the major resources in Saskatchewan (e.g., minerals, potash, oil, uranium, natural gas, lumber, water, crop and livestock production).b. Locate on a map the major industries in Saskatchewan (e.g., agriculture processing, mining, manufacturing, forestry products, energy refinement, tourism, livestock production).c. Identify the natural resources and industries found in the local community, and analyze their impact upon the community.d. Illustrate the goods made from the major natural resources, the consumers of those goods, and the export destinations.f. Examine the environmental impact of the development of natural resources on the local community, the province, and the world.g. Describe the impact of technological innovations originating in Saskatchewan on the global community (e.g., farm machinery, varieties of grain, automated teller machines, fibre optics, communications technologies, pesticides and herbicides, vaccines).

Unit Introduction and Overview:

This unit, for grade four social studies, looks at impacts on the land and how it affects the environment. The framework I have created for this unit fits within the grade four Saskatchewan curriculum and covers introduces four outcomes and twenty four indicators. The goal of this unit is for students learn how all of the things we do, both in the past and present, play a role in how the land is affected. Along with that, we look at differing perspectives, or worldviews, about how land should or is treated with respect to both perspectives. Within this student framework there are two lessons that directly incorporate First Nations and Metis ways of knowing while the remaining six lessons do have aspects where these ways of knowing could be incorporated. Students will be primarily introduced to impacts humans are making to the land and how it affects the environment. Through learning about this, students will gain an understanding and appreciation for the land and the issues that surround it.

Subtopics as an Overview:

1.Where is the land?

  • Location
  • Geographic Regions of Saskatchewan
  • Treaty Map of Saskatchewan

2.First Nations, Metis, and Settlers Relationships with the land.

  • Lifestyles
  • History of the land
  • Loss of Land
  • Treaty Implications (in regard to the impact of land)

3.Resources within the land.

  • What are Saskatchewan’s resources
  • Actions and consequences of extracting resources (i.e. Human impact on the land such as pollution, deforestation, etc.)

4.Demand for resources and how does it impact the land?

  • Who needs these resources
  • Saskatchewan’s Economy
  • Quantity needed around the world
  • How does it get there

 

Created using MindMaps

Lesson 1: Defining Demographics

Learning Objective: Students will be able to describe, and locate, areas that together make up Saskatchewan’s demographics (such as ecoregions), make inferences as to why people chose to settle in particular areas, and be able to identify characteristics that are unique to Saskatchewan in regards to land.

Content: Ecoregions of Saskatchewan: collected from http://www.biodiversity.sk.ca/eco.htm

  1. Taiga Shield Zone
    1. Selwyn Lake Upland

Precambrian rocks forming broad,sloping uplands together with numerous lakes and prominent sandy ridges trending in a northeast-southwest direction characterize the landscape. Rugged bedrock exposures are common.

Most of the bedrock, however, is covered by sandy glacial deposits, giving this ecoregion a more subdued appearance than the Tazin Lake Upland to the west. Ecologically, this ecoregion occurs within the subarctic zone, which is considered transitional between the boreal forest to the south and tundra to the north. Perennially frozen soils are more widespread here than elsewhere in the province; the trees are generally shorter, and the forests are more open. Black spruce with a conspicuous lichen understorey is typical of the region. Arctic flora is present in some plant communities.

Wildlife populations are relatively sparse with the most noticeable species being moose, black bear, timber wolf, arctic fox, wolverine and snowshoe hare. Barren-ground caribou migrate from the Northwest Territories into this region during most winters. Harris’s sparrow, tree sparrow, gray-cheeked thrush and pine grosbeak are characteristic birds.

  1. Tazin Lake Upland

Ancient Precambrian rocks, rising in places 100 metres or more above the surrounding terrain, dominate the landscape giving it a rugged, almost mountainous appearance. The steep, upper slopes are usually treeless, but shallow, sandy soils on the lower slopes support closed stands of black spruce and jack pine. White spruce are confined to valleys and lake shorelines. The low-lying peatland areas are perennially frozen and support low stands of black spruce.

Typical of the Precambrian Shield, this ecoregion has numerous small lakes, many of which are linked by fast-flowing streams to form the regional drainage pattern. Most of the ecoregion drains northward into Great Slave Lake. The aquatic systems support cold water fish such as lake trout and arctic grayling, in addition to northern pike, walleye and whitefish. Some of the more conspicuous animals include black bear, wolverine, and timber wolf, along with scattered populations of moose.

The migratory barren-ground caribou and associated arctic fox sometimes enter the region during winter. Red-throated loon, greater yellowlegs, white-crowned sparrow and golden eagle are typical birds. Willow ptarmigan are found in this ecoregion during the winter.

  1. Boreal Shield Ecozone
    1. Athabasca Plain

Landscapes in this ecoregion appear less rugged than elsewhere on the Shield due largely to the flat-lying sandstone bedrock and the almost continuous cover of sandy glacial deposits. Lakes and wetlands are also less numerous. The spectacular sand dune area along the south shore of Lake Athabasca is the area’s most outstanding feature.

Other prominent features include eskers, flutings and drumlins, which mark the northeast-southwest direction of ice movement during the last glaciation. Young, open stands of jack pine are common due to the sandy, droughty soils and the high frequency of fire. Pine-spruce forests are found in the drumlin area, while stands of black spruce and white birch occur on the lower slopes of the dunes. The dune area harbours several species of plants, such as Turnor’s willow, sand chickweed and Mackenzie hairgrass, which are not found anywhere else in the world.

Both the populations and the diversity of wildlife are low compared to elsewhere on the Shield. Local populations of moose along with black bear and timber wolf are the most prominent. The migratory barren-ground caribou and associated arctic fox are sometimes found in the region during winter. The white-winged crossbill, Cape May warbler, blackpoll warbler and Bohemian waxwing are typical birds.

  1. Churchill River Upland

Typical of the Precambrian Shield, this ecoregion is characterized by a mix of bedrock outcrops, glacial deposits, wetlands and lakes. Local relief rarely exceeds 25 metres, but the landscape gives the impression of roughness and even ruggedness, particularly where bedrock outcrops are prevalent. Lakes, which account for as much as 40% of the area, are typically long and narrow and aligned in a northeast-southwest direction, paralleling the bedrock structure and the direction of glacial ice movement.

Many are linked by stretches of fast-flowing rivers to form the regional drainage pattern-the Churchill River system being an example. Most of the soils are sandy and support low stands of black spruce and jack pine. Clay soils, supporting white spruce and aspen, occur sporadically throughout the eastern part of the area. The low-lying peatland areas are often perennially frozen and support black spruce and tamarack. Aquatic systems, like others on the Shield, are distinguished by the presence of cold water fish such as lake trout and arctic grayling, in addition to northern pike, walleye and whitefish.

Wildlife populations are higher than elsewhere on the Shield with moose, woodland caribou, black bear, and timber wolf being the most noticeable. The Churchill River system contains the second highest concentration of nesting bald eagles in North America-only in Alaska do higher concentrations exist. Other characteristic birds include Connecticut warbler, northern three-toed woodpecker, osprey and red-breasted merganser.

  1. Boreal Plain Ecozone
    1. Mid-Boreal Upland

This ecoregion includes the area in central and western Saskatchewan immediately south of the Shield, as well as several prominent upland areas known locally as the Thickwood, Pasquia and Porcupine Hills. Typically, the upland areas are characterized by an ascending sequence of steeply sloping, eroded escarpments, hilly glacial till plains and level plateau-like tops. The intervening areas are comparatively level, with large, sparsely treed peatlands being common.

Most of the ecoregion is characterized by loamy, gray soils, although near the Shield the soils are sandy and often poorly drained. The forests grow taller here than on the Shield and account for the bulk of the province’s merchantable timber. Aspen occurs throughout the ecoregion and is dominant on the south-facing slopes of the major uplands. Where moisture conditions are favourable, white spruce is often mixed with aspen. Jack pine, in addition to its usual dominance in sandy areas, is found mixed with black spruce on the plateau-like tops of the uplands. Black spruce and tamarack dominate the low-lying peatland areas.

Wildlife populations are high and diverse with moose, woodland caribou, mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, black bear, timber wolf and beaver being the most prominent. White-throated sparrow, American redstart, ovenbird, hermit thrush and bufflehead are typical birds. Fish populations include northern pike, walleye, whitefish, some perch and scattered populations of lake trout.

  1. Mid-Boreal Lowland

At an elevation of less than 400 metres, this relatively flat, low-lying ecoregion is dominated by wetlands. Peatlands supporting open stands of tamarack and black spruce are prevalent in the northern part, although sandy glacial deposits and limestone outcrops also occur there. To the south lies the flood plain of the Saskatchewan River featuring both active and abandoned river channels and their associated levees.

The levees, which are built up by the periodic deposition of river sediments, rise abruptly from the river channel and then slope gently back from the river into an area of marshes, fens and poorly drained meadows. Most of the levees are well drained and represent the most productive forest lands in the province. Large white spruce, balsam poplar and aspen are found there along with an assortment of less common hardwoods such as American elm, green ash and Manitoba maple. The levees are also a productive habitat for wildlife, although wildlife populations in general are lower here than in the Mid-Boreal Upland.

The most conspicuous species include moose and woodland caribou. The floodplain and associated marshes form a unique waterfowl and muskrat habitat. Typical birds include common loon, Canada warbler, ruby-crowned kinglet and white-breasted nuthatch.

  1. Boreal Transition

This ecoregion is characterized by a mix of forest and farmland, marking both the southern advance of the boreal forest and the northern limit of arable agriculture. Gray soils supporting tall stands of aspen are characteristic of the hilly upland areas. White spruce and jack pine occur throughout the area but are less common than in the more northern ecoregions. Peatlands are also less common.

Except for the areas of jack pine on sandy soils along the North Saskatchewan River valley, the lowlands or plains are mostly cultivated. In fact, the black and dark gray soils are some of the most fertile and productive in the province, producing a wide range of forage crops, feed grains, cereals and oilseeds. Wildlife populations are diverse with white-tailed deer, moose, elk and black bear being the most prominent.

Other mammals include the beaver, northern flying squirrel and the short-tailed shrew. The gray jay, boreal chickadee, black and white warbler, and great-crested flycatcher are typical birds.

  1. Prairie Ecozone
    1. Aspen Parkland

In its native state, this ecoregion is characterized by a mosaic of aspen groves and fescue grasslands. Along its southern boundary, aspen groves dot a predominantly grassland landscape, while the northern parts exhibit a more continuous cover of aspen. Locally, grasslands occupy the drier upper and south-facing slopes, while aspen is found on the moist lower, mid- and north-facing slopes.

This is in contrast to the southern grassland ecoregions where aspen is found only around sloughs, or in valleys and sandhill areas. Bur oak is found sporadically along the Qu’Appelle River valley and its tributaries. Glacial till landscapes characterized by short, steep slopes and numerous, undrained depressions or sloughs are prevalent, and provide an ideal habitat for ducks and other waterfowl. White-tailed deer is the most prominent wildlife species. Coyote, hare, fox and Richardson’s ground squirrel are also prevalent.

Typical birds include house wren, least flycatcher, western kingbird and yellow warbler. Due to the favourable climate and fertile, loamy, black soils, most of the land is cultivated, producing a diversity of crops including cereals and oilseeds as well as forages and several specialty crops.

  1. Moist Mixed Grassland

This ecoregion marks the northern extension of open grassland in the province, and is closely correlated with semi-arid moisture conditions and dark brown soils. Most landscapes are comprised of glacial till, and have short, steep slopes and numerous undrained depressions or sloughs, although several large, level glacial lake plains also occur. Native vegetation is confined largely to non-arable pasture lands, where speargrasses and wheatgrasses, along with deciduous shrubs such as snowberry, rose, chokecherry, and wolf willow are among the more common species.

Small aspen groves are typically found around sloughs and are a characteristic feature of the landscape, particularly as compared to the drier Mixed Grassland ecoregion which is largely treeless. The prairie potholes or sloughs, although less common than in the Aspen Parkland, provide a valuable habitat for waterfowl. Mule deer and white-tailed deer are conspicuous wildlife species. Other notable species include coyote, red fox, badger, Richardson’s ground squirrel and jack rabbit.

The western meadowlark, eastern kingbird, yellow-headed blackbird, piping plover, sharp-tailed grouse and Franklin’s gull are typical birds. Agriculture is by far the dominant land use, with cereals being the main crop. Feed grains, forage crops and oilseeds are also grown, but to a lesser extent than in the Aspen Parkland.

  1. Mixed Grassland

This ecoregion represents the driest area of the province as evidenced by the absence of native trees and scarcity of wetlands and permanent water bodies. Its diverse landscapes include level, glacial lake plains; dune-covered, sandhill areas; the hilly, pothole country along the Missouri Coteau; and the rolling expanses of native grassland and intermittent “badlands” near the United States border. The native grasslands are characterized mainly by wheatgrasses and speargrasses and, to a lesser extent, by blue grama grass which gains prominence on extremely droughty soils or under high grazing pressure. Shrub communities composed of snowberry and wolf willow are found in areas of favourable soil moisture.

Aspen, which is characteristic in and around moist depressions in the Moist Mixed Grassland ecoregion, is generally absent here except in valley bottoms and sandhill areas. Pronghorn antelope, white-tailed and mule deer, coyote, jack rabbit, Richardson’s ground squirrel, horned lizard, prairie rattlesnake and western painted turtle are typical of the region. The only Canadian population of black-tailed prairie dog is found here.

Characteristic birds include ferruginous hawk, long-billed curlew, yellow-breasted chat, chestnut-collared longspur, burrowing owl and sage grouse. About half of the area is cultivated, with the remainder used for extensive grazing of livestock on native or introduced grasses. Cereals are the main crop on cultivated land, although feed grains, forages and oilseeds are also grown.

  1. Cypress Upland

Rising abruptly 400 to 500 metres above the surrounding plains, the Cypress Upland is a typical plateau with steeply sloping escarpments and numerous valleys and coulees. The upland was formed some 50 million years ago from materials borne eastward by rivers originating in the newly formed western mountains.

Since the top of the plateau, at an elevation of 1300 m, escaped glaciation, some of these materials, worn round on their long river journey, can be seen at the surface. The effect of the abrupt and significant rise in elevation is reflected in both the soils and the vegetation. At the base of the upland, mixed grasslands developed on dark brown soils are prevalent. With a rise in elevation, the vegetation changes to a sub-montane fescue prairie on the south-facing slopes, and finally at the upper elevations, to a mix of lodgepole pine, white spruce, and aspen along with patches of fescue prairie.

Black and dark gray soils are found on the top of the plateau. The lodgepole pine community is unique in Saskatchewan and is similar to that found in the Montane region along the foothills and lower valleys of the Rocky Mountains. Because of the region’s unique flora, the mix of wildlife is consequently diverse. Pronghorn antelope, mule and white-tailed deer along with island populations of both elk and moose can all be found in the Cypress Upland. Typical birds include trumpeter swan, yellow-rumped warbler, MacGillvary’s warbler, dusky flycatcher and Townsend’s solitaire.

Teacher Intentions: Through learning about ecoregions students will be introduced and gain an understanding of Saskatchewan’s demographics. Connecting to environmental education, students will begin to make the link between the different areas of land, where they are located, and what the environment that surrounds it is like.

Curriculum Connections:

DR4.1 Correlate the impact of the land on the lifestyles and settlement patterns of the people of Saskatchewan.

  1. Locate Saskatchewan on a map of Canada, North America, and the world.
  2. Locate the geographic centre of Saskatchewan on a map.
  3. Make inferences about why people in Saskatchewan settled particular locations, including settlement patterns before and after coming together of First Nations and European peoples using a variety of maps (e.g., near waterways, sources of water, rail lines, natural resources, low population density in rural areas).
  4. Identify the characteristics of the unique geographic regions in Saskatchewan.

Environmental Education Connections: This lesson mainly introduces students to the concept of Saskatchewan’s demographics. Through learning about ecoregions students will demonstrate an appreciation for their environment that they live in. An understanding of demographics provides students the necessary information for beginning to learn about the land they live on.

Lesson 2: First Nations and Metis Relationships with the land

(Lifestyles and History of the Land)

Learning Objective: Students will be able to describe First Nations and Metis peoples history and lifestyles influenced their with the land.

Content: Mother Earth: Collected from http://www.afn.ca/en/honoring-earth

Mother Earth

From the realms of the human world, the sky dwellers, the water beings, forest creatures and all other forms of life, the beautiful Mother Earth gives birth to, nurtures and sustains all life. Mother Earth provides us with our food and clean water sources. She bestows us with materials for our homes, clothes and tools. She provides all life with raw materials for our industry, ingenuity and progress. She is the basis of who we are as “real human beings” that include our languages, our cultures, our knowledge and wisdom to know how to conduct ourselves in a good way. If we listen from the place of connection to the Spirit That Lives in All Things, Mother Earth teaches what we need to know to take care of her and all her children. All are provided by our mother, the Earth.

Indigenous peoples are caretakers of Mother Earth and realize and respect her gifts of water, air and fire. First Nations peoples’ have a special relationship with the earth and all living things in it. This relationship is based on a profound spiritual connection to Mother Earth that guided indigenous peoples to practice reverence, humility and reciprocity. It is also based on the subsistence needs and values extending back thousands of years. Hunting, gathering, and fishing to secure food includes harvesting food for self, family, the elderly, widows, the community, and for ceremonial purposes. Everything is taken and used with the understanding that we take only what we need, and we must use great care and be aware of how we take and how much of it so that future generations will not be put in peril.

Environmental degradation affects the health and well-being of not only the First Nations people but all peoples of North America and the world in many ways. First Nations peoples do not yet know all the ways harmful man-made substances affects fish, wildlife, habitat, and human beings. However, First Nations people are aware that pollutants and contaminants, especially those originating from industrial development, have negative consequences for the health of all living things, including humans. Industrial contamination and disruption of wildlife habitat combine to reduce the supply and purity of traditional foods and herbal medicines. Finally, degradation erodes the quality of life dependent on the purity of the land, water, flora and fauna, and further affects Indigenous peoples cultures, languages and spiritual health and well-being.

First Nations peoples can demonstrate how, in asserting their land use and rights, economic initiatives can be both profitable and sustainable for future generations. First Nation traditional knowledge has provided our people with the tools to care for Mother Earth and our sacred sites. This knowledge can be shared with industry for the betterment and survival of all peoples.

Teacher Intentions: Students will be introduced to First Nations and Metis relationships with the land by examining both lifestyles and history of the use of the land. Students will gain recognition that there are both historical and contemporary issues that surround this topic with regard to environmental education. By making the connection to environmental education it opens the doors for students to explore environmental issues that exist in our communities today in further detail.

Curriculum Connections:

DR4.2 Explain the relationship of First Nations and Métis peoples with the land.

  1. Investigate the traditional worldviews of First Nations peoples prior to European contact regarding land as an animate object and sustaining life force.
  2. Research traditional lifestyles of First Nations communities and peoples prior to European contact (e.g., hunting, gathering, movement of people to follow food sources).
  3. Explore how the traditional worldviews and teachings of First Nations’ Elders regarding land influence the lifestyle of First Nations people today.
  4. Research the history of the Métis people and their relationship with the land.
  5. Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Métis people.

Environmental Education Connections: The lesson predominantly introduces students to First Nations and Metis relationships with the land in contingency with the greater issues that are discussed further through environmental education. By learning about Mother Earth students will learn about this lesson through an Indigenous lense. In doing so, students will begin to understand the connection between First nations and Metis relationship with the land and the environmental issues that these groups are often forced to face.

Lesson 3: First Nations and Metis Relationship with the Land

(Loss of Land and the Results of Treaty Implications on the Land)

Learning Objective: Students will be able to identify how the loss of land rights and the results of treaty implications were affected by differing worldviews and how, as a result, that impacted the land.

Content: Theory Learning with the Natural World: collected from https://firstnationspedagogy.com/earth.html

First Nations, Inuit, and Metis knowledge is strongly linked to the natural world: Indigenous languages, cultural practices, and oral traditions are all intimately connected to the Earth. Traditionally, First Nations and Inuit people see their relationship with each other and with the Earth as an interconnected web of life, which manifests as a complex ecosystem of relationships. Balance and holistic harmony are essential tenets of this knowledge and subsequent cultural practices. Embedded too is a keen belief in both adaptability and change, but change that further promotes balance and harmony, not change that creates distress, death, and the depletion of the Earth’s populations and resources. Careful observation of the seasons and the cycles of life foster an appreciation for the impermanence of things, including humans, as well as the interdependence of all life forms with each other.

A relatively recent, evolving interest in First Nations knowledge by mainstream society is both timely and to be expected. The deep sophisticated knowledge of how to live in balance with other people and all of the Earth’s inhabitants, and the very planet, herself is keenly necessary in the 21st century. Many First Nations, Inuit and Métis Elders have mused that if Western peoples had paid attention to Indigenous knowledge when they first arrived in Canada and other parts of the Americas, the current world would be much more harmonious, clean, and healthy. Now that some people are willing to listen, after decades of land mismanagement, pollution, greed, and serious depletion of animal, plant and other sources of sustenance, some keepers of Indigenous knowledge are willing to share. “One of our truths is to share. We have chosen to share our stories, our teachings, our practices, our linguistic references and maps in order that the knowledge and the wisdom that has sustained us as Coastal peoples can be understood and used by others, as we have adapted to change so must mainstream society”: (Brown & Brown, 2009, p. 6).

The following model was designed by Brown and Brown (2009, p. 10) to illustrate the circular process of understanding the world around us, sharing this understanding, and contributing to the knowledge and health of all by cultivating universal stewardship to promote biodiversity and sustainability.

Teacher Intentions: Students will gain an understanding of how two, very different, worldviews clashed and how the effects of neglect has impacted the land. Students will begin to make connections between how the loss of land has affected First Nations and Metis peoples ability to sustain land as they had  previously done years ago. This, in turn, leads to students self discovery of how these issues relate to environmental issues.

Curriculum Connections:

DR4.2 Explain the relationship of First Nations and Métis peoples with the land.

  1. Compare the traditional views of land and culture of the Aboriginal peoples of Saskatchewan with those of the railway developers.
  2. Assess the impact of historic loss of land on First Nations and Métis people.
  3. Investigate the process by which decisions were made about the location of reserve lands in Saskatchewan.
  4. Research the Métis struggle for land, and the displacement of Métis people in the late 19th century.

Environmental Education Connections: This lesson focuses on familiarizing how First Nations and Metis Relationships with the land has been impacted by a differing worldview. Thus, losing the control to contribute to the health and well-being of the Earth’s environment as they had been previously doing years before. Understanding this concept leads students to recognize the connection between environmental issues that some First Nations and Metis peoples are forced to face on a continuous basis and the environmental issues that are present in the world today as a result of a differing worldviews.

Lesson 4: Settlers Relationships with the Land

Learning Objective: Students will be able to identify the impacts on the land that came through settlement on the prairies and why the Europeans wanted to settle in particular areas.

Content: Introduction Settlement Patterns: collected from http://www.saskarchives.com/sasksettlement/display.php?cat=Settlement%20Patterns&subcat=Introduction

Today Canada prides itself on being a multicultural country, open and welcoming to all immigrants. We are viewed as a country where you can become Canadian, but at the same time maintain your cultural roots. While multiculturalism did not become an official government policy until 1971, it was the settlement experience in Saskatchewan between 1870 and 1930 that actually created the first multicultural society in Canada. The immigration policies of Clifford Sifton, Minister of the Interior, and the advertising campaigns of the railways created a prairie landscape which was dotted by ethnic bloc settlements.

In some cases the settlement patterns in Saskatchewan were the result of advertising campaigns and government programs, but they also developed due to wealthy patrons or companies attempting to establish settlements. While Sifton made a concerted effort to attract East European settlers he was also willing to modify the Dominion Lands Act to accommodate the efforts of Leo Tolstoy, the Russian novelist, to resettle the Doukhobors on communal settlements in Saskatchewan. There were also several land companies at work in the United States attempting to attract American settlers to specific areas of the province.

Whether it was a distinct cultural group, such as the Barr Colonists, or simply family and friends of a similar culture coming together, the settlement map of Saskatchewan soon represented several distinct cultural groups. Even today many Saskatchewan communities reflect unique cultural origins.

Teacher Intentions:  Students will be introduced to European settlement on the prairies and in learning about the history students will discover how the land played a factor in where they settled. Connecting to environmental education, students will gather that the land plays a huge factor as to where people want to live. If the land is good, and does not have any environmental issues surrounding it, then people will want to settle there.

Curriculum Connections:

DR4.1 Correlate the impact of the land on the lifestyles and settlement patterns of the people of Saskatchewan.

  1. Make inferences about why people in Saskatchewan settled particular locations, including settlement patterns before and after coming together of First Nations and European peoples using a variety of maps (e.g., near waterways, sources of water, rail lines, natural resources, low population density in rural areas).
  2. Identify the impact of geography on the architecture of Saskatchewan, including how styles, materials, and cultural traditions have been affected by interaction with the land and other people in the province.

Environmental Connections: This lesson provides students with the basic components needed to gather an understanding for how the land was impacted by European settlement. Considering the aims and goals of environmental education, we see how a land with no environmental issues can be taken over and in turn harm the environment from neglecting to take care of the land and the misuse of the land harmfully impacts the environment.

Lesson 5: Saskatchewan’s Resources

Learning Objective: Students will be able to identify what Saskatchewan’s resources are, where they can be found, and how these resources affect, and are viewed, in various Saskatchewan communities.

Content: Agriculture, Natural Resources, and Industry: collected from https://www.saskatchewan.ca/business/agriculture-natural-resources-and-industry

1.      Agribusiness, Farmers, and Ranchers

  • Learn about crops and marketing options, land, livestock, risk management, and business management.
  1. Forestry
    • Learn about Saskatchewan’s well-established forest industry, which is sustainably managed and globally competitive, and how government supports sustainable forest management.
  2. Mineral Exploration and Mining
    • Learn more about the province’s geology, and mineral and petroleum resources. Apply for permits and rights to explore and develop Saskatchewan’s mineral deposits.
  3. Service Industry
    • Become a guide or outfitter in Saskatchewan. Apply or surrender a licence.
  4. Land Management
    • Learn more on the province’s land use planning and our representative areas network. Find out how to arrange for a conservation easement or how to purchase or lease Crown resource lands.
  5. Oil and Gas
    • Learn about the Integrated Resource Information System (IRIS), and read news from Saskatchewan’s oil and gas industry.

Teacher Intentions: Through learning about Saskatchewan’s resources students will demonstrate how their knowledge of resources is applied to their knowledge of the land. Students will begin to gain an understanding of the direct links between resources and how they affect the environment.

Curriculum Connections:

RW4.3 Assess the impact of Saskatchewan resources and technological innovations on the provincial, national, and global communities.

  1. Represent on a map the major resources in Saskatchewan (e.g., minerals, potash, oil, uranium, natural gas, lumber, water, crop and livestock production).
  2. Locate on a map the major industries in Saskatchewan (e.g., agriculture processing, mining, manufacturing, forestry products, energy refinement, tourism, livestock production).
  3. Identify the natural resources and industries found in the local community, and analyze their impact upon the community.

Environmental Education Connections: The lesson introduces to students what Saskatchewan’s resources are. Through this students will being to gain a better understanding as to how the misuse of these resources can, in turn, harmfully affect the environment. Students will then be able to further identify environmental issues in the surrounding area as a result of this lesson.

Lesson 6: Actions and Consequences of Extracting Resources

Learning Objective: Students will be able to recognize Saskatchewan’s role in exporting resources and how this impacts the land environmentally.

Content:Environmental consequences across the entire supply chain: collected from http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/topics/waste-resources/resource-use-its-consequences

The way we use resources provokes often irreversible ecological change. Extraction and processing of non-regenerative raw materials are often energy intensive activities involving large scale interventions in ecosystems and the water balance and result in air, soil and water pollution. Even the extraction and production of renewable resources often involve extensive use of energy, materials, chemicals and in some cases water; and all this translates into pollution. Greenfield land is often transformed to create arable land and in some cases whole ecosystems are destroyed in the process.

In short, raw material extraction and processing always impact on the environment, resulting as they do in soil degradation, water shortages, biodiversity loss, damage to ecosystem functions and global warming exacerbation. And that’s not all. For the use of products made of raw materials almost always results in greenhouse gas emissions, pollution, ecosystem damage and/or biodiversity loss. Products need energy and water, as well as land for shipping, marketing and use. Improper product use provokes noxious emissions that can end up in our water, soil and air. The very infrastructure elements that we take for granted such as our homes, not to mention countless daily activities, often involve extensive resource use and result in greenfield land being paved over, damage to ecosystems and spoiling the beauty of nature.

And even at the end stage of the supply chain, environmental harm is unavoidable. For example, recycling requires energy, using waste for energy generates greenhouse gases and other pollutants, and greenfield land is permanently occupied by waste dumps.

Thus resource use already somewhat exceeds the earth’s regenerative capacities by virtue of the fact that non-renewable natural resources are finite and their quality is often mediocre. The increasing pressure on natural resources resulting from steady worldwide population growth may incite competition from other potential uses.

Teacher Intentions: Students will be introduced to the actions and consequences of the extraction of resources causes to the land. Students will see that everyday actions that one does without thinking has an impact on the environment. Students will begin to understand that the continuation of the misuse of resources will negatively impact the environment.

Curriculum Connections:

RW4.3 Assess the impact of Saskatchewan resources and technological innovations on the provincial, national, and global communities.

  1. Illustrate the goods made from the major natural resources, the consumers of those goods, and the export destinations.
  2. Examine the environmental impact of the development of natural resources on the local community, the province, and the world.

Environmental Education Connections: The lesson directs its attention towards the concept that the actions and consequences of extracting resources on a continuous basis can be very harmful to the environment. Understanding that continuous consumption of resources at the rate we are currently using will only result in further environmental issues is a key concept in this lesson.

Lesson 7: Saskatchewan’s Economy

Learning Objective: Students will be able to define what an economy is, along with being able to identify how and why what happens in Saskatchewan is supported by the economy.

Content: Economic Impacts: collected from http://www.davidsuzuki.org/issues/climate-change/science/impacts/economic-impacts/

Climate change is expected to have a major impact on the world economy. For Canada — a country that depends so much on natural resources — the economic impacts could be severe. We’re already seeing ominous changes:

  • Rising ocean temperatures on Canada’s West Coast have weakened economically valuable salmon species, reducing the survival rates of spawning fish, scientists say.
  • Forests in British Columbia have been devastated recently by the mountain pine beetle, which thrives thanks to unusually mild winters. According to the BC Ministry of Forests and Range, as of 2012 the cumulative area of provincial Crown forest affected was about 181,000 square kilometres, an area of timber more than five-times the size of Vancouver Island. The value of these trees is in the billions of dollars.
  • The 2001 prairie drought cost the Canadian economy over $5 billion in agricultural losses, according to a University of Manitoba study.
  • The mining industry in Canada is also vulnerable to climate change, including from reduced water levels.

According to the Munich Reinsurance Corporation of Canada, “Economic losses caused by natural catastrophes are likely to bring home the effects of climate change more and more dramatically as time goes by.”

The world’s most in-depth analysis of the economic costs and opportunities of climate change is The Stern Review, a 700-page report released by former World Bank chief economist Lord Stern. The report concludes that early action to reduce the impacts of GHG emissions could cost only two per cent of GDP, but it warns that the costs of delaying action will result in significantly higher economic costs — up to 20% of GDP.

The world does not need to choose between averting climate change and promoting growth and development. In fact, the solutions to climate change will also bring about many economic benefits.

Teacher Intentions: Based off of the students prior knowledge students will build off of what they already know about resources. Students will be introduced to Saskatchewan’s economy and they will being to understand how the lands resources are linked to the economy. Students will discover the level of importance environmental issues is given versus the level of importance of the economy.

Curriculum Connections:

RW4.2 Investigate the importance of agriculture to the economy and culture of Saskatchewan.

  1. Analyze the significance of Saskatchewan agricultural commodity exports to the

province.

Environmental Education Connections: The lesson introduces the concept of what role the environment is given when opposed to the economy. Components of land resources play a major part in environmental education as there are many issues that surround the land, such as the greed that comes from a rising economy. It is important to recognize how environmental issues can drastically impact Saskatchewan’s economy.

Lesson 8: The World’s Demand for Resources

Learning Objective: Students will be able to demonstrate how the world’s demand for Saskatchewan resources impacts the land/environment that they live in.

Content: Economic Overview: collected from http://publications.gov.sk.ca/documents/310/93841-2016-08-19%20Economic%20Overview.pdf

Food, fuel and fertilizer – Saskatchewan has what the world needs. Saskatchewan is Canada’s leading agricultural exporter, its second largest oil producer and the world’s top producer of potash, used in fertilizer to feed a hungry planet. Our province is also one of the world’s top suppliers of uranium. Built on this rich resource base are world-class technologies in biotechnology, crop sciences, and carbon capture and storage, to name a few. In the past several years, Saskatchewan has created one of the most competitive business environments in North America. As a result, the province has seen major investments and infrastructure projects including the first new potash mine in 45 years and a new uranium mine in the province’s north.

Teacher Intentions: Students will be introduced to the topic of the world’s demand for resources. Students will recognize that not everybody in the world has access to everything they need. Students will then connect this the environmental issue that there is not enough resources for everybody in the world which is why Canada is able to export our goods.

Curriculum Connections:

RW4.3 Assess the impact of Saskatchewan resources and technological innovations on the provincial, national, and global communities.

  1. Illustrate the goods made from the major natural resources, the consumers of those goods, and the export destinations.
  2. Describe the impact of technological innovations originating in Saskatchewan on the global community (e.g., farm machinery, varieties of grain, automated teller machines, fibre optics, communications technologies, pesticides and herbicides, vaccines).

Environmental Education Connections: The lesson will enforce the concept of the world’s demand for resources and therefore gather that the need for resources in other places provides contexts for many environmental issue. The problem that not everybody has the same access to resources will be the goal for students to understand by the end of this lesson.

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